# Recitation on Textiles ([slides](slides.pdf)) <!-- https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1i79f2qPNuEu08KtVVjJWM34KmIo7qsiEs8staOwUkRY/edit?usp=sharing --> Content: * [Introduction](#introduction) * [Processes](#processes) * [Fiber](#fiber) * [Weaving](#weaving) * [Lace](#lace) * [Knitting](#knitting) * [Crochet](#crochet) * [Knotting](#knotting) * [Sewing](#sewing) * [Miscellaneous](#misc) (tufting, felting) * [Credits](#credits) ## <a id="introduction">Introduction / History</a> There are many different types of textiles. The list we cover here is not exhaustive. In general, textile involves fiber connected together through various topologies. The most common ones are illustrated here: <a data-caption="(c) Alexandre Kaspar 2019"> <img src="images/topology_types.png" width="800" /> </a> For a good coverage of the history of textiles over the ages, see: * "The golden thread: how fabric changed history", by Kassia St. Clair [worldcat](https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=The+Golden+Thread%3A+How+Fabric+Changed+History+&amp;qt=owc_search) <a data-caption="(c) Carmen Snow 2019"> <img src="images/intro_first_people.jpg" width="800" /> </a> <img src="images/intro_comp_textiles.jpg" width="800" /> * Textile is ancient. * Textile has been done in local communities for a very long time. * Complex textiles programming is not new, nor are most current machines for it. <img src="images/intro_women.jpg" width="800" /> Textile has primarily be done by women in many countries. Given all the related discriminations, it has received little branding or hype until recently. <a data-caption="(c) Carmen Snow 2019"> <img src="images/intro_industries.jpg" width="800" /> </a> Textile involves many complex and very interesting engineering and design processes. It is part of many industries, not just fashion. ## <a id="processes">Textiles Processes</a> The first part of textile making starts with the creation of the fiber, which we briefly cover before going over various different processes of interest. ### <a id="Fiber"> At the core of any fabric is fiber. Fiber comes in very different [types](https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/textile-fiber) (e.g. natural vs man-made) as well as various types of [packagings](http://evinok.com/?p=4309) (skeins, balls, cones ...). Common fiber [types](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber) include: * Natural fibers: * Animal (protein-based): silk, wool * Vegetal (cellulose-based): cotton, flax, ramle, jute * Mineral fibers: [asbestos](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos) * Man-made fibers: * Transformed cellulose: rayon, acetate * Synthetic polymers: poly-acrylontrile, polyurethane, polyalctic, polyamide, polyester * Inorganic fibers: made of metal, ceramics, glass or carbon <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_manufacturing"> <img src="images/fiber_cotton.jpg" width="800" /> </a> Except for silk and some man-made fibers (i.e. monofilaments), fiber is typically short and chaotic. This means that before using it, we typically need to process it to make it coherent and ready for manufacturing. There can be many processing steps to prepare the fiber. For example, the cotton involves notably: * [Carding](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carding) to straighten and separate fibers * [Combing](https://trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/tools/fibre-preparation/combing-and-carding) to parallize fiber (see [this video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hjimjv-b2aE)) * Spinning ([instructables](https://www.instructables.com/id/spinning-yarn/)) to create small yarn plies that can be woven or knitted * As well as twisting, winding, dying and steaming <iframe width="800" height="600" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/9pyMh0Ll-8k" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> As for the special man-made "monofilament" yarns, they undergo one of two similar processes: * Preform to fiber (see papers: [n1](https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-26561-8), [n2](https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11986-0)) consists in pulling on a block of carefully crafted material that is driven to its glass temperature. This process allows functional components to be inserted inside of the fiber. * Done at [AFFOA](http://go.affoa.org/) * Pellets to fiber processes typically material pellets that are then pulled into a fiber (e.g. [recycling plastics to fiber](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyF9MxlcItw) and 3d printing filament) Notable applications include: * [Optical fiber](https://www.thorlabs.com/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=6832#ad-image-0), typically pulled from a preform * Recycling plastics into garment fiber * 3D printing filament <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/AAczQv-WXZk" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> <iframe width="733" height="550" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/zyF9MxlcItw" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> ### <a id="weaving">Weaving</a> Terms: * **Warp**: vertical threads (columns / wales), as many as needed to cover the width of the fabric * **Weft**: horizontal thread (rows / courses), from one to multiple depending on the pattern * **Shedding**: the creation of a *shed* under which the weft thread goes, by pulling a selection of warp threads up * **Shuttle**: the device used to transfer the weft across the shed * **Heddle**: the individual eyelet through which each warp thread is pulled (up or not) * **Beating-up**: the process of compacting the weft to create a woven structure with correct tension <a data-caption="Alexandre Kaspar 2019"> <img src="images/topology_woven.png" width="300" /> </a> <a data-caption="Example of plain weave, by Ryj, CC BY-SA 3.0" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=37702470"> <img src="images/weaving_warp_weft.jpg" width="400" /> </a> Weaving is a parallel process through which one or multiple weft threads are woven in between columns of warp threads. At its core, the process consists of: 1. Creating a shed by pulling a selection of warp threads up 2. Inserting the weft across the shed 3. Beating up the weft to compact it (and ensure its good tension) There are many variants of *looms* (the machine through which weaving is done) with various ways to select the warp threads (either in groups or individually), as well as various ways to transfer the weft across the shed (e.g., manually or with a flying shuttle). <a data-caption="The history and principles of weaving by hand and by power, Barlow, 1879, p. 82"> <img src="images/weaving_diagram.png" height="400" /> </a> For an introduction to weaving, see "The history and principles of weaving by hand and by power", Barlow, 1879. Available on [archive.org](https://archive.org/details/historyprinciple00barluoft/). For a more modern reference, see "Shuttleless weaving machines", Talavasek, 1981. <a class="dark" data-caption="Heddles, by Loggie-log, public domain" href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3635894"> <img src="images/weaving_heddles.jpg" height="400" /> </a> One typical complication with weaving machines is that they require a complex setup to prepare the warp threads (easily thousands of them) and their tensioning, before anything can be done. <a data-caption="(c) Alex Zimmer, 2018"> <img src="images/weaving_warping_machine.jpg" width="600" /> </a> Various types of woven patterns can be created, typically designed by using binary codes to select which warps are up (versus down) over time. Simples ones are shown here. ### <a id="lace">Lace</a> ### <a id="knitting">Knitting</a> ### <a id="crochet">Crochet</a> ### <a id="knotting">Knotting</a> The art of making knots. Knitting / crochet, not with loops, but with knots. ## Credits This recitation was crafted by [Alexander Zimmer](https://www.kniterate.com/about/), [Carmel Snow](http://www.carmelsnow.com/) and [Alexandre Kaspar](http://w-x.ch). ### Resources * [Fiber Processes](http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/865.18/fiber/index.html) from [MAS.865/18](http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/865.18/index.html) * Introduction to [Machine Knitting](https://akaspar.pages.cba.mit.edu/machine-knitting/)