# Textiles Background Content: * [Context and Applications](#applications) * [From Fiber to Yarn](#fiber) * [From Fiber to Textile](#textile) * [Weaving](#weaving) * [Knitting](#knitting) * [Crochet](#crochet) * [Braiding](#braiding) * [Knotting](#knotting) * [Sewing](#sewing) * [Tufting](#tufting) * [Non-woven](#nonwoven) * [Napped and Pile Fabric](#pile) * [References](#references) * [Credits](#credits) This overview starts by introducing the world of textiles, its complex historical context and highlighting the breadth of its [applications](#applications). We then consider the journey from [fiber](#fiber) to [textile](#textile) and fabric. <!-- The structure and ideas presented in this chapter were initially developed as a recitation about textiles for the “How to Make (almost) Anything” class at the Center for Bits and Atoms at MIT[^1]. The recitation was created together with two colleagues: Alex Zimmer and Carmel Snow. --> ## <a id="applications">Context and Applications of Textiles</a> ### Textile, Fabric or Cloth The word textile typically refers to a form of material that is created by interlacing yarn, thread or fiber. *Yarn* is a long intertwining of fibers, whereas *thread* is a type of yarn typically used for sewing. *Fiber* is a natural or man-made material that is longer than it is wide, giving it advantageous mechanical properties in a specific direction. In practice, the word “textile” is often used interchangeably with “fabric” or “cloth”, although they tend to be used in slightly different contexts. Notably, *fabric* is usually not used as-is, but serves as a constituent of a larger piece – , a garment –, whereas textile can be used as-is such as carpets and rugs. The etymology of the words brings a more intuitive take on their differences: “textile” is borrowed from latin *textilis* (“woven”), derived from *texere* (“to weave”) [<a href="#barnhart_barnhart_1988" class="ref">barnhart1988</a>], whereas “fabric” is borrowed from French *fabrique* or latin *fabrica* (“the framework or basic structure of anything”) [<a href="#agnes_webster_1999" class="ref">agnes1999</a>]. ### Historical Context and Importance Textile has a long history, believed to have started more than 30000 years BCE [<a href="#clair_golden_2019" class="ref">clair2019</a>; <a href="#laver_costume_2020" class="ref">laver2020</a>]. It is highly tangled with the socio-economical context of the region where it is developed as it involves many layers of the society for its production, its trade and processing [<a href="#picton_african_1989" class="ref">picton1989</a>; <a href="#watt_when_1997" class="ref">watt1997</a>]. As one of the main economic driving forces during the industrial revolution, textile production further plays an important role in the integration of women as part of the modern workforce [<a href="#dublin_women_1979" class="ref">dublin1979</a>; <a href="#hunter_women_2004" class="ref">hunter2004</a>]. <figure id="fig-home"> <img src="./figures/textile-home.jpg"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 1</a>: Example of home interior from <a href="#bell_material_2015" class="ref">bell2015</a> including various forms of textiles: carpet, rug, cloth on sofa and pillows, table cloth, tissue, window curtains, teddy bear and elephant plush toy. Credits: <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/dana_moos/3684553349/">Dana Moos</a>, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/">CC-BY-NC 2.0</a>. </figcaption> </figure> ### Applications Areas Textiles are everywhere in our lives. It is the main form of material used for all of our garments. It also covers many of our home floors, furniture, beds and even the interior surface of our cars (see <a href="#fig-home">Figure 1</a>). As a simple thought experiment, we consider the Materials in Context Database [<a href="#bell_material_2015" class="ref">bell2015</a>]. Out of their 23 material categories, two are clearly related to textile: fabric and carpet. Their cumulative coverage in terms of patches accounts for more than 16% of the 2,996,674 material patches they compiled out of 436,749 images. Fabric itself gathers the third most prominent number of patches (&asymp; 12%) behind wood (&asymp; 19%) and painted material (&asymp; 16%). Beyond garments, fashion, interior design or automobile, textile also intervenes in often unexpected ways. In aeronautics, textile is responsible for the sails and spinnakers of boats [<a href="#cali_mechanical_2018" class="ref">cali2018</a>], the envelope of hot air balloons, the wings of paragliders and deltas, as well as parachutes. In architecture, textile can be used as a scaffold for casting complex 3D shapes with concrete [<a href="#veenendaal_history_2011" class="ref">veenendaal2011</a>]. A growing part of textile is dedicated to *smart textiles* [<a href="#vanlangenhove_smart_2007" class="ref">vanlangenhove2007</a>] that can enhance human performance or safety during critical operations, including fire safety [<a href="#kilinc_handbook_2013" class="ref">kilinc2013</a>], health monitoring [<a href="#wicaksono_tailored_2020" class="ref">wicaksono2020</a>], medical tissue engineering [<a href="#wollina_functional_2003" class="ref">wollina2003</a>] or even spacesuit applications [<a href="#payra_feeling_2021" class="ref">payra2021</a>]. Finally, smart textiles have also started tackling simpler user applications and tangible interfaces by integrating function in the fabric [<a href="#poupyrev_project_2016" class="ref">poupyrev2016</a>] or within the fiber itself [<a href="#gumennik_allinfiber_2012" class="ref">gumennik2012</a>; <a href="#tao_infrared_2015" class="ref">tao2015</a>; <a href="#rein_diode_2018" class="ref">rein2018</a>; <a href="#kanik_strainprogrammable_2019" class="ref">kanik2019</a>; <a href="#luo_learning_2021" class="ref">luo2021</a>; <a href="#luo_knitui_2021" class="ref">luo2021</a>]. ## <a id="fiber">From Fiber to Yarn</a> Fiber is the base unit of all textiles, and notably the yarn typically used for producing fabric and garments. However, not all fibers are necessarily used for textile. A notable example is *paper* that is typically made by processing fiber in water, draining the water and then pressing and drying the resulting material [<a href="#hunter_papermaking_1978" class="ref">hunter1978</a>]. In this section, we briefly cover the types of fibers and their differences. For a more extensive look at the broad world of fibers, see the work of <a href="#kadolph_textiles_2010" class="ref">kadolph2010</a>. ### Types of Fibers Fiber can be natural or man-made. Most *natural fibers* come from animals or plants, although some forms are created from geological processes, each of which is illustrated in <a href="#fig-natural-fibers">Figure 2</a>. Common examples include wool, silk, cotton or flax. On the other side, *man-made fibers* are fibers that undergo a significant modification during production. They are typically subdivided into *semi-synthetic* – when starting from a fiber-like raw material that is only partially modified –, and *synthetic* – when starting from synthetic material. The majority of *semi-synthetic* fibers are based on cellulose [<a href="#wang_recent_2016" class="ref">wang2016</a>], which includes those used for paper making. Common examples of *synthetic* fibers include nylon, acrylic and elastane. Notable examples include carbon fiber [<a href="#chung_carbon_2012" class="ref">chung2012</a>], optical fiber [<a href="#chu_measurement_1982" class="ref">chu1982</a>], fiberglass [<a href="#wallenberger_fiberglass_2010" class="ref">wallenberger2010</a>], as well as metallic fibers typically used in electric cables. <a href="#fig-synthetic">Figure 3</a> shows examples of both nylon and carbon fiber. <figure id="fig-natural-fibers"> <img src="./figures/sheep-wool.jpg" class="h240"> <img src="./figures/cotton.jpg" class="h240"> <img src="./figures/asbestos.jpg" class="h240"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 2</a>: Examples of natural fibers, from left to right: sheep wool (animal), cotton (plant) and absestos with muscovite (mineral). In the public domain, respectively from: <a href="https://flickr.com/photos/volvob12b/15338972885/">Bernard Spragg</a>, the US Department of Agriculture, and <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Asbestos_with_muscovite.jpg">Aram Dulyan</a> </figcaption> </figure> <figure id="fig-synthetic"> <img src="./figures/nylon.jpg" class="w-half h240"> <img src="./figures/carbonfiber.jpg" class="w-half h240"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 3</a>: Examples of synthetic fibers: nylon (left) and carbon fiber (right). Credits: <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Particolare_di_calza_di_nylon.jpg">Vigorini</a>, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">CC-BY 4.0</a> (left); and in the public domain via <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carbon_fiber.jpg">cjp24</a> (right). </figcaption> </figure> ### Fiber Processing The transformation from fiber to yarn can involve many different steps. As a common example, cotton processing includes a large sequence of operations [<a href="#gordon_cotton_2006" class="ref">gordon2006</a>]. Raw cotton balls undergo several pre-processing steps including the extraction of its fiber components (*ginning*), and their cleaning, disentanglement and intermixing (*carding*). Then, the fiber bundles undergo *spinning* during which the strands of fibers are twisted and eventually wound onto a bobbin to form the yarn. Strands of yarn are typically called *plies* and they are often combined by twisting them together. This twisting is typically done in the opposite orientation from that of the fiber in the individual plies so as to create a *balanced yarn* that does not twist upon itself. <a href="#fig-yarn-plies">Figure 4</a> illustrates the twisting of yarn plies. At the other end of the spectrum, a group of synthetic fibers that is gaining interest in smart textiles are *monofilament* fibers [<a href="#hagewood_technologies_2014" class="ref">hagewood2014</a>]. Two fabrication methods include extrusion of melted material (e.g., nylon, PLA [<a href="#castro-aguirre_poly_2016" class="ref">castro-aguirre2016</a>] and recycled PET [<a href="#awaja_recycling_2005" class="ref">awaja2005</a>]), and pulling on a material preform that is slowly melted (e.g., optical fiber). More recently, those fibers are starting to integrate additional components inside of the filament structure including electrodes [<a href="#guo_polymer_2017" class="ref">guo2017</a>], diodes [<a href="#rein_diode_2018" class="ref">rein2018</a>] and even full micro-controllers [<a href="#loke_digital_2021" class="ref">loke2021</a>]. <figure id="fig-yarn-plies"> <img src="./figures/yarn-plies.jpg" class="h300"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 4</a>: <em>Left</em>: the two different twisting directions, often called <em>S</em> and <em>Z</em> twists for the patterns they produces. <em>Right</em>: skeins of yarn and a close-up of their plies. </figcaption> </figure> ## <a id="textile">From Fiber to Textile and Fabric</a> The two most common forms of fabric in garment-making are [woven](#weaving) and [knitted](#knitting), illustrated in Figure \[fig:textiles:topologies\]. Their prevalence is in part due to their regular structures that afford large-scale automation. Correspondingly, they form the majority of mass-manufactured textiles for garment production. More general textile categories tend to have larger degrees of freedom that make them less amenable for automation, notably: [crochet](#crochet) that uses similar constructions as knitting, yet with very different mechanical properties; [braiding](#braiding) that encompasses woven structures; and [knotting](#knotting) that encompasses both crochet and knitting. Fabric binding with [sewing](#sewing) is then discussed given its importance to garment production, followed by [tufting](#tufting) that works with a similar, yet simpler thread insertion principle. We briefly mention so-called [non-woven](#nonwoven) textiles and conclude with the notions of *nap* and [pile fabric](#pile). <figure id="fig-topologies"> <img src="./figures/topologies.jpg"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 5</a>: three of the most common textile topologies: woven (left), weft knitted (center) and warp knitted (right). </figcaption> </figure> ### <a id="weaving">Weaving</a> Woven fabric is composed of two sets of orthogonal yarns – the weft and warp yarns – that interlace to form a sheet of fabric [<a href="#barlow_history_1878" class="ref">barlow1878</a>; <a href="#adanur_handbook_2020" class="ref">adanur2020</a>], as illustrated in Figures [5](#fig-topologies) and [6](#fig-weaves). Although weft and warp yarns look similar locally, they play distinct roles. The *warp* yarns form parallel, independent tracks that typically do not directly interact, whereas the *weft* yarn goes back and forth, orthogonal to the warp yarns. Different types of woven patterns – also known as *weaves* – have received specific names over time. The most common weaves are illustrated in [Figure 6](#fig-weaves): * The *plain* weave alternates under-over as a checkerboard. * The *twill* weave forms a diagonal pattern and is used for denim fabric typical of jeans. * The *satin* weave has warp threads that float over four or more passes of weft thread, producing a glossy and smooth material. * The *basketweave* is a common variation of the plain weave that creates a criss-cross pattern by using larger checkerboard tiles. * The *Leno* weave – also known as *cross* weave – is a specialized weave that intertwines pairs of adjacent warp threads around the weft yarn to produce a strong yet airy fabric [<a href="#gong_specialist_2011" class="ref">gong2011</a>]. It is often used for creating sturdy bags, nets and medical gauze. <figure id="fig-weaves"> <!-- <img src="./figures/weave-plain.png" title="Plain weave"> <img src="./figures/weave-twill.png" title="Twill weave"> <img src="./figures/weave-satin.png" title="Satin weave"> <img src="./figures/weave-basket.png" title="Basketweave"> <img src="./figures/weave-leno.png" title="Leno weave"> --> <img src="./figures/weaves.png" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 6</a>: Examples of common woven patterns. </figure> *Looms* are devices used to create woven textile, whose general mechanisms are illustrated in [Figure 7](#fig-loom). They keep the warp thread under tension and often allow some form of control over the warp yarn selection to simplify the path of the weft yarn. Important mechanisms in looms include: 1. the *shedding* that raises a selection of warp yarns, forming a *shed* that allows the passage of the weft yarn; 2. the *weft insertion* that takes care of transferring the weft yarn across the width of the fabric, historically done with a *shuttle* that carries it both ways; and 3. the *beating-up* that compacts the weft yarn after each of its passes. <figure id="fig-loom"> <img src="./figures/loom.jpg"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 7</a>: illustration of common loom mechanisms. Originally figure 21, page 78 of the work of Barlow [<a href="#barlow_history_1878" class="ref">barlow1878</a>]. </figcaption> </figure> One of the critical components of looms for automation is the mechanism behind the selection of the warp yarns, which may allow the user to program different woven patterns. The common mechanism for shedding in [Figure 7](#fig-loom) relies on *heddles* – small eyelets that let the warp yarn through, and can be raised or lowered mechanically, or made to twist around each other (e.g., for Leno fabric). How the machine selects the heddles to be raised defines the pattern programming capabilities. In 1804, Joseph Marie Jacquard integrated ideas from Basile Bouchon, Jean-Baptiste Falcon and Jacques de Vaucanson into a loom attachment that allows programmatic selection of heddle groups with punch cards [<a href="#barlow_history_1878" class="ref">barlow1878</a>]. As a chain of punch cards advances with the weaving process, only the heddle groups for which holes exist in the current punch card get selected (or not). Programming the weaving pattern became thus as simple as creating portable punch cards. Beyond looms, this automation work notably led to the *Analytical Engine* of Charles Babbage, and with it, the rest of the modern computers [<a href="#essinger_jacquard_2007" class="ref">essinger2007</a>]. The first powered looms used a *shuttle* that carries the weft yarn spool across the fabric’s width in a *continuous* back-and-forth manner. Modern looms use various mechanisms that can achieve much higher throughput – , a larger number of *picks* per minute of the weft yarn across the fabric’s width. This includes notably: * *airjet* and *waterjet* looms that propel the weft through with compressed air (or water) bursts, * *rapier* looms that mechanically grasp and carry the weft yarn across the shed before retracting without it, and * *projectile* looms that propel an object bound to the weft, then separated and carried back mechanically. All these mechanisms have in common that the weft thread is *discontinuous*, and typically cut to be slightly longer than the fabric width. One modern exception consists of so-called *narrow fabric looms* such as *needle looms* used for making ribbons, belts and various types of tapes [<a href="#thompson_narrow_2013" class="ref">thompson2013</a>]. An important part of the woven fabric is the *selvage* that corresponds to the most lateral edge of the fabric which prevents the fabric from fraying. In *shuttle weaving*, the selvage can be as simple as the ends of the weft thread past the most lateral warps – , by alternating the selection of the end warps so they are caught by the weft yarn as it goes back and forth. In modern *shuttleless weaving*, dedicated mechanisms are employed such as *fused selvage* that uses temperature to bind the fabric (notably with termoplastic fibers), *leno selvage* that binds the weft with additional small threads and twisting, or *tucked-in selvage* that tucks the extremities of the discontinuous weft edges back into the fabric (producing a double weft density near the edge). ### <a id="knitting">Knitting</a> Knit fabric is formed by pulling loops of yarns through previous existing loops, eventually forming rows and columns of stitches that are interconnected with each others. [Figure 5](#fig-topologies) illustrates two forms of regular knitted topologies: *weft* knitted fabric forms rows of loops with a single yarn thread, whereas *warp* knitted fabric forms columns of loops with parallel yarn threads. The terms weft and warp naturally match the thread directions of weaving. For a complete review of knitting technologies, see the work of <a href="#spencer_knitting_2001" class="ref">spencer2001</a>. #### Hand Knitting Knitting by hand is typically done with two ore more needles that stack sequences of stitches – , the individual loop units in knitting. Two needles interact to create a new loop that is pulled through a pre-existing loop that drops from the holding needle while keeping the new one on the active needle, as illustrated in [Figure 8](#fig-hand-knitting). A variety of *cast-on* techniques exist for creating stitches that do not depend on previous stitches and are necessary to start the knitting process. Similarly, techniques exist to close the knitted structure – , known as *bind-off* or *cast-off* procedures. By using either circular needles with double ends, or relying on more than two double-ended needles, then one can *knit in the round* – , knit tubular structures. The individual rows are then replaced by a spiral-like structure. <figure id="fig-hand-knitting"> <img src="./figures/hand-knitting.png" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 8</a>: Creation of a knit stitch with two knitting needles. When the active needle retracts -- from (d) to (e) --, its endpoint slides closely around the other needle to pull the new loop through the old one. </figcaption> </figure> #### Flat Weft Knitting One of the first step to the textile industrialization was the invention of the *Stocking Frame* – the first form of knitting machine – by William Lee in 1589. It used a flat bed containing a parallel set of *beard needles* laid out to hold stitches. The basic weft knitting process goes as follows: 1. a yarn is carried over the bed and gets caught in the hooks as the needles get actuated; 2. the old stitch loops get knocked over their needle hooks as these are closed during the needle retraction; 3. this forms new stitches by pulling the new loops through the old ones as they drop from the needles. By repeating the process, large sheets of weft knitted fabric can be created quickly. [Figure 9](#fig-beard-needles) illustrates the stitch creation process. <figure id="fig-beard-needles"> <img src="./figures/beard-needles.png" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 9</a>: Beard needles and their actuation to form new knit stitches </figcaption> </figure> Mechanically, beard needles have a hook that can partially flex and close under mechanical pressure. Other more recent needles mainly change the actuation of the needle and its hook closing mechanism. Notable ones include the *latch needle* that closes the hook with a mechanical latch, the *compound needle* and the *slide needle* that both use an additional linear sliding component that acts as a hook closure. [Figure X1](#fig-needle-types) illustrates the different needle types. <figure id="fig-needle-types"> <img src="./figures/needle-types.png" class="h240"> <figcaption> <a>Figure X1</a>: The three most common types of machine knitting needles. </figcaption> </figure> <figure id="fig-flat-bed"> <img src="./figures/flat-bed.jpg" class="h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 10</a>: Schematics of the actuation of a flat bed machine with a mechanical cam. Originally figure 16 from the work of <a href="#buck_flat_1921" class="ref">buck1921</a>. </figcaption> </figure> Domestic flat bed machines typically have a manual carriage that actuates the needles through a set of mechanical cams as illustrated in [Figure 10](#fig-flat-bed). The carriage may be programmed to choose a sequence of needles to select or their respective actions. More complex flat bed machines may include additional beds. A secondary bed allows for complex stitch patterns including *purl* stitches – , the back of a knit stitch, which looks very different, as illustrated in [Figure 11](#fig-purl). Industrial flat bed machines typically have at least two beds facing each others and can knit tubular structures by forming cycles that cover both beds. <figure id="fig-purl"> <img src="./figures/knit-front.jpg" class="w-half h400"> <img src="./figures/knit-back.jpg" class="w-half h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 11</a>: The front (left) and back (right) of a basic jersey fabric highlighting the distinct appearance of both *knit* stitches and *purl* stitches respectively. </figcaption> </figure> #### Circular Knitting Circular knitting machines have a fixed circumference that is packed with needles. Specific needles can be selected and actuated back and forth to produce notably the heel of a sock. Such machines typically target socks, although sleeves can also be made. While flat bed machines with two beds can also knit tubular structures, they tend to be slow. The speed limitation is due to their acceleration profile: since the carriage alternates between going left and right, it keeps accelerating and decelerating. In contrast, circular knitting machines do not have to decelerate and can knit at a constant rate when their yarn continuously rotates in the same direction. This makes them the machine of choice for high-throughput knitted fabric production as they achieve the highest throughput. They typically produce the knitted fabric used for making t-shirts and other knitted garments. [Figure 12](#fig-circular-knitting) illustrates both an older design for sock knitting, and an industrial high-throughput circular machine. <figure id="fig-circular-knitting"> <img src="./figures/circular-knitting.jpg" class="h400"> <img src="./figures/circular-knitting-industrial.jpg" class="h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 12</a>: Example of hobbyist circular knitting machine that is manually actuated by rotating a shaft (left), and a large industrial circular knitting machine (right). In the public domain thanks to <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Circular_knitting_machine.jpg">Elkagye</a>. </figcaption> </figure> #### Warp Knitting The last category of knitting machines are *warp knitting* machines that work with many warp threads in parallel. Mechanical guides bring the yarn into the needles by swaying laterally in a *lapping* movement that can be decomposed into both a lateral motion parallel to the needle bed – known as *shogging* or *shog* – and a back and forth motion between the front and back of the needles – the *swing*. As the needles retract, their hooks are closed to lets the old stitches get knocked over, before extending the needles and opening them again, to repeat the process. Note that the shogging of the guides must allow for warp threads to reach more than a single needle, otherwise we would end up with individual, separate stitch columns. This is visible in [Figure 5](#fig-topologies) where pairs of adjacent wales are connected and [Figure 13](#fig-warp-knitting) that illustrates the swaying of the yarn guides in a Raschel warp knitting machine. The swaying itself is programmable over time and allows for the creation of various knitting patterns. Typical warp-knitted fabrics include lace, tricot as well as stretchy fabric used in athletic wear. An important functional difference with weft-knitted fabric is that yarn damage in a warp-knitted fabric does not trigger large-scale unravelling. In terms of manufacturing, all the needles work in parallel which allows for very fast production. The supply of yarn is very similar to that of warp threads in a weaving loom. <figure id="fig-circular-knitting"> <!-- <img src="./figures/warp-knitting.svg" class="h300"> <img src="./figures/warp-knitting-side.svg" class="h300"> --> <img src="./figures/warp-knitting.png"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 13</a>: An example of swaying illustrating the movement of the yarn guides in a Raschel warp knitting machine: the general movement from the front of the needles (left), and the movement decomposition from the side, behind the needles (right). The general <em>lapping</em> movement is decomposed into <em>swing</em> and <em>shog</em> axes, and its front and back passes relative to the needles are called <em>overlap</em> and <em>underlap</em>. </figcaption> </figure> ### <a id="crochet">Crochet</a> Crochet is a form of loop building that works with a hooked needle [<a href="#butterickpublishinginc._art_2016" class="ref">butterick2016</a>], one stitch at a time, without having to keep previous stitches on another needle. Compared to knitting, the yarn can be pulled through any previous stitch easily, which enables less structured forms of knitted fabric, and is potentially more accessible. Correspondingly, stitch loops are typically not kept open for long, but instead closed directly. From a mechanical perspective, crocheted fabric tends to stretch less than knitted fabric, and it does not necessarily unravel widely upon local yarn damage. As a less structured fabrication process, it affords less automation and is still mainly manual. On the other side, the wide degrees of freedom allow for the creation of very complex 3D shapes such as with hyperbolic crochet [<a href="#henderson_crocheting_2001" class="ref">henderson2001</a>]. <figure id="fig-crochet"> <img src="./figures/crochet.png" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 14</a>: Beard needles and their actuation to form new knit stitches </figcaption> </figure> The simplest stitch of crochet is the *chain stitch* that catches yarn through one loop to create a new loop, as illustrated in [Figure 14](#fig-crochet). The action of catching the yarn by moving it over the hook is called a *yarn over* and is a component of more complex stitches together with the action of *drawing the loop* by pulling it through another loop. #### Tunisian Crochet A special form of needles used in Tunisian crochet – also known as Afghan crochet – works by stacking loops on the hook needle. The corresponding hook needle is typically longer and has an end that prevents stitches from going through. ### <a id="braiding">Braiding</a> A braid is the interlacing of two ore more strands of flexible materials. Common examples include: hair braids, ropes that braid multiple yarns together to prevent twisting under load, and various types of bread such as the *Zopf* (known as “Tresse” in French, which means *braid*) or the Jewish *challah* bread – as shown in [Figure 15](#fig-braided). In the industrial setting, various forms of metallic braiding are often placed around electronic cables to shield them from electromagnetic interference. Material composites use braiding to increase mechanical properties and sometimes form the composite itself [<a href="#ayranci_2d_2008" class="ref">ayranci2008</a>], whereas braiding serves for the formation of complex freeform materials in architecture [<a href="#vestartas_design_2018" class="ref">vestartas2018</a>]. Braiding machines typically use cyclic motions of bobbins to intertwine yarn or other composite materials together. A notable example of industrial braiding is with carbon fiber and other composites in the aerospace industry. <figure id="fig-braided"> <img src="./figures/zopf.jpg" class="h300"> <img src="./figures/usb-cable2.jpg" class="h300"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 15</a>: Illustrations of braids: braided Swiss bread (left) and USB cable (right). </figcaption> </figure> #### Braid Theory In mathematics, braids play an important role in group theory [<a href="#chiodo_introduction_2005" class="ref">chiodo2005</a>; <a href="#murasugi_study_2012" class="ref">murasugi2012</a>] with the Artin braid groups. An important underlying problem is whether two braids of *N* strings are topologically equivalent – , if they represent the same interweaving, modulo some free movement of the *N* threads while keeping their ends fixed. The theory behind Artin braid groups has recently been used by <a href="#li_artin_2021" class="ref">li2021</a> to verify the tangling properties of knitted transfer operations on weft knitting machines. They provide a means to verify the validity of a transfer sequence given the source and target stitch locations on the needle bed. Finally, from the geometric perspective, traditional weaving can be considered as a specific case of braiding with one braid acting as the weft thread, as illustrated in [Figure 16](#fig-braid-theory). Note that this assumes a continuous weft thread, which is not common in modern weaving looms. <figure id="fig-braid-theory"> <img src="./figures/braiding.png" class="h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 16</a>: Illustration of geometric braids: the two on the left are topologically equivalent, whereas the third from the left is distinct due to its different ordering from the leftmost one. The rightmost example showcases a plain weave as a braid. </figcaption> </figure> ### <a id="knotting">Knotting</a> Knots are loop structures that exhibit a form of tangling that cannot be undone without passing one or both ends of the material backward through its loops – , effectively undoing the knot. From a structural perspective, knots stabilize yarns or strings and are typically used for binding things together such as with cordage on sailboats. Knotted fabric is created by forming webs of knots, such as in net making. A common form of knotted textile is *macramé*, in which multiple parallel yarns are braided and knots are formed locally to rigidify the structure. Macramé textile is self-supporting when put under tension so that it can hold objects tightly (e.g., the plant pot in [Figure 17](#fig-macrame)). The main knots of macramé are *square* knots (also known as *reef* knots) and various forms of *hitch* knots that connect different yarns locally. <figure id="fig-macrame"> <img src="./figures/macrame-flat2.jpg" class="h400"> <img src="./figures/macrame-plant.jpg" class="h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 17</a>: Macrame examples: as a flat sheet (left) and a net wrapping around a plant pot (right). </figcaption> </figure> #### Knot Theory The mathematical study of knots deals with their topological aspects [<a href="#adams_knot_1994" class="ref">adams1994</a>] and is closely related to *braid theory*. While a mathematical knot represent a closed curve, *links* represent collections of knots that may be tangled together, and *braids* can be transformed into links by binding their ends. Some mathematical operations are used similarly on knots, links or braids such as Reidemeister moves [<a href="#trace_reidemeister_1983" class="ref">trace1983</a>] that transform a knot (or braid) into another, topologically equivalent form of it. [Figure 18](#fig-knot-table) visualizes some prime knots (i.e., that cannot be decomposed under the *knot sum* operation [<a href="#massey_basic_2019" class="ref">massey2019</a>]). In contrast to practical knots, mathematical knots are closed. By cutting them topologically, one can represent knotted textiles. Knitting can be represented as the composition of an interlocking series of slip knots [<a href="#markande_knotty_2020" class="ref">markande2020</a>]. <figure id="fig-knot-table"> <img src="./figures/knot-table.svg" class="h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 18</a>: Mathematical prime knots up to 7 crossings with their Alexander–Briggs notation, excluding mirrored versions. In the public domain, created by <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jkasd">Jkasd</a> </figcaption> </figure> ### <a id="sewing">Sewing</a> Sewing is mainly used to bind objects together using stitches made with a sewing needle and thread. While it is extensively use for binding fabric in garment production, it can be used to bind other materials such as leather, or even books. *Sewing machines* speed up the binding process by taking care of the stitch creation process automatically, leaving to the user the work of guiding the machine path and fabric tension [<a href="#ahles_fine_2001" class="ref">ahles2001</a>]. Modern machines can often use a collection of different stitch types that depends on the number of threads and needles used by the machine. Common hobbyist sewing machines typically use two threads: one passing through the needle, and one stored in the bobbin case below the feed dogs (shown on the right of [Figure 19](#fig-sewing)). Common stitches include the *lockstitch*, *zigzag stitch* (for preventing fabric unraveling) and the *overlock* or *serger stitch* (for bindings at the edge of the fabric [<a href="#james_complete_1998" class="ref">james1998</a>]). [Figure 20](#fig-seams) illustrates different types of seams. <figure id="fig-sewing"> <img src="./figures/embroidery-machine.jpg" class="h300"> <img src="./figures/sewing-bobbin.jpg" class="h300"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 19</a>: A Brother machine for both sewing and embroidery – note the linear gantry (left) – and a close-up looking at the second bobbin that provides the thread below the fabric (right). The main thread comes from above, through the needle. </figcaption> </figure> <figure id="fig-seams"> <img src="./figures/seams.jpg" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 20</a>: Different types of seams in the inside of a night robe (left), and border seams binding two flat pieces of fabric as a table mat (right). </figcaption> </figure> #### Embroidery Beside binding objects and fabric together, sewing can be used for *embroidery*, using the sewn thread as an embellishment, or means to change the fabric appearance and draw motifs as shown in [Figure 21](#fig-embroidery). Advanced modern sewing machines can be extended with a gantry for automatic embroidery given an input image to the machine [<a href="#brother" class="ref">brother</a>] as illustrated in [Figure 19](#fig-sewing). *Visible mending* makes use of embroidery to transform garment defects into decorative patterns. <figure id="fig-embroidery"> <img src="./figures/embroidery.jpg" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 21</a>: Fine embroidery on a shirt (left and top), and coarse yarn embroidery on a drawing (right and bottom) with its mirrored back (right inset). </figcaption> </figure> #### Quilting Quilting is a form of sewing that integrates several layers of fabrics. Similarly to embroidery, it is typically used as an embellishing of the fabric, and often mixes different types of fabrics or colors. ### <a id="tufting">Tufting</a> Tufting is primarily used to create rugs and carpets, and consists in inserting yarn loops through an existing structure (i.e., another textile, typically woven) with some form of needle. Compared to sewing, it only requires a single thread and does not need to completely cross the base material [<a href="#liu_influence_2015" class="ref">liu2015</a>] – although the most common forms typically go through. It has notable uses in composite reinforcement [<a href="#cartie_3d_2006" class="ref">cartie2006</a>; <a href="#henao_mechanical_2010" class="ref">henao2010</a>; <a href="#liu_influence_2015" class="ref">liu2015</a>]. Manual tufting can be done with a *hook needle* by pulling loops of yarn through the base material, or with a *punch needle* by simply going through the material and retracting to leave a loop on the other side. Both are illustrated in [Figure 22](#fig-tufting). For larger-scale projects, *tufting guns* provide a semi-automated variant of the punch needle that typically includes an automatic loop cutting mechanism to allow for a felted finish. Industrial tufting machines for carpets and rugs basically proceed in the same way with many needles actuated in parallel. <figure id="fig-tufting"> <img src="./figures/tufting.png" class="h400"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 22</a>: Two different tools for tufting: <ul> <li>a hook needle pulls the yarn back through the material to form a loop (left), whereas</li> <li>a punch needle pushes the yarn through and retracts while letting the yarn slide and stay as a loop (right).</li> </ul> </figcaption> </figure> ### <a id="nonwoven">Non-Woven</a> Non-woven textiles bundle fiber together with a limited structure and typically shorter macroscopic continuity of the fibers. They notably do not require the fiber to be transformed into yarn for production. They span various application domains from garments to the health industry and other technical textiles [<a href="#albrecht_nonwoven_2006" class="ref">albrecht2006</a>]. #### Felting Felt is made by explicitly tangling fibers together locally. It seems to have appeared in human history much before knitting and weaving [<a href="#laufer_early_1930" class="ref">laufer1930</a>]. The resulting fabric has interesting physical properties including water absorption, permeability, fire resistance and insulation capabilities [<a href="#fouchier_felt_2009" class="ref">fouchier2009</a>]. Manual felt making is done either *wet*, by entangling fiber in hot water with friction, or *dry* by using barbed needles to poke the fiber and increase its internal entanglement. Hobbyist felting machines look similar to sewing machines, although they typically do not introduce any yarn. The fiber is locally added manually, and punched successively until it binds to the existing felt fabric. [Figure 23](#fig-felting) shows different examples. Recently, low-cost 3D printing systems were used to create 3D felted fabrics using yarn [<a href="#hudson_printing_2014" class="ref">hudson2014</a>], or by binding layers of felted fabric [<a href="#peng_layered_2015" class="ref">peng2015</a>; <a href="#peng_soft_2016" class="ref">peng2016</a>]. The main industrial production of felt is based on the dry mechanism: fiber is distributed and pressed between two panels, before being repeatedly poked through to entangle the fiber structure with many needles in parallel. <figure id="fig-felting"> <img src="./figures/felting.jpg" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 23</a>: Felt examples: raw sheets of felt (top-left), a fox created by needle felting (bottom-left), and rugs (right). Credits to <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kyrgyz_Republic_Felt_Rugs_-_Stierch.jpg">Sarah Stierch</a> for the Kyrgyz felt rugs – <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">CC-BY 4.0</a> – and to <a href="https://flickr.com/photos/coatiprints/9639251356">Amanda Adebisi</a> for the fox – <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/">CC-BY-ND 2.0</a>. </figcaption> </figure> ### <a id="pile">Napped and Pile Fabric</a> In general, the *nap* refers to the fuzzy surface of fabrics such as felt. The *nap* originally referred to the rough surface of woolen fabric before it was *sheared* to improve its smoothness – effectively removing the nap. It then later referred to raised fibers introduced explicitly as part of the fabric – also known as *pile*. In both cases, the fabric is said to be *napped* if it was processed to get a smooth finish – typically by *raising* the nap, and then *trimming* it. Tufting directly creates pile by inserting loops through a primary material. Knitting can introduce pile either through dedicated mechanisms (e.g., in warp knitting), or by using specific knitting structures such as floating yarn or spacer fabric. Weaving relies on specialized machines or mechanisms. #### Woven Pile Fabric Some of the oldest woven pile formations are based on manually inserting knots in the woven structure – the *knotted pile*. Other traditional methods form either *weft pile* or *warp pile* by manipulating the corresponding yarns (weft or warps) so as to create local loops. [Figure 24](#fig-woven-pile) illustrates some of them. One manual method used on hand looms consists in inserting *rods* and twisting the weft (or a dedicated pile yarn) around these rods so that their later removal forms pile loops. Power looms use various specialized mechanisms or weave structures that make use of floats which are eventually raised, either during the weaving process, or a posteriori. One specialized mechanism is *face-to-face* weaving that creates two distinct woven fabrics which are bound together with the pile yarn – typically along the warp direction. The pile yarns are then eventually cut to separate the two fabrics, resulting in a cut pile. More complex mechanisms such as those in *Axminster looms* use dedicated pile warps that can be programmatically inserted in the main fabric. <figure id="fig-woven-pile"> <img src="./figures/woven-pile.png" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 24</a>: Different mechanisms to introduce pile in woven fabric. </figcaption> </figure> #### Common Pile Fabrics One of the most notable pile fabrics is *velvet* – a cut-pile fabric with even, short pile heights. It has a distinctive soft feeling and a strong sheen [<a href="#ashikmin_microfacetbased_2000" class="ref">ashikmin2000</a>; <a href="#ngan_experimental_2005" class="ref">ngan2005</a>]. While velvet is typically a *warp-pile* fabric, *velveteen* is a *weft-pile* fabric that looks very similar. Another common pile fabric is *plush* that differs from velvet by its longer cut pile and a typically lower density. One of its main uses is for the fabrication of stuffed toys such as teddy bears, typically called *plushies*. *Velour* is a type of plush fabric that is often used in clothing. *Terrycloth* is a loop-pile fabric – , the loops are kept uncut – commonly used for towels and bath robes given its high absorption capabilities [<a href="#petrulyte_static_2009" class="ref">petrulyte2009</a>]. Some of those fabrics are illustrated in Figures [25](#fig-pile-fabric) and [26](#fig-pile-garments). <figure id="fig-woven-pile"> <img src="./figures/pile-fabric.jpg" class="h500"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 25</a>: Towels, blankets and rugs are common examples of pile fabric. The loops can be kept as-is (top-left) or cut and processed for a softer finish (right). Furniture also commonly uses napped fabric such as on this velvety box chest (bottom-left). </figcaption> </figure> <figure id="fig-pile-garments"> <img src="./figures/felt-inner.jpg" class="h300"> <img src="./figures/felt-outer.jpg" class="h300"> <figcaption> <a>Figure 26</a>: Examples of napped fabric used in garments: as an inner layer of a knitted sweatshirt (left/top) and as an outer layer fleece (right/bottom). </figcaption> </figure> ## <a id="references">References</a> <div class="ref" id="adams_knot_1994" data-id="adams1994"> <p>Adams, Colin C. 1994. <em>The Knot Book</em>. American Mathematical Soc.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="adanur_handbook_2020" data-id="adanur2020"> <p>Adanur, Sabit. 2020. <em>Handbook of Weaving</em>. CRC press.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="agnes_webster_1999" data-id="agnes1999"> <p>Agnes, Michael, and David Bernard Guralnik. 1999. <em>Webster’s New World College Dictionary</em>. Macmillan New York.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="ahles_fine_2001" data-id="ahles2001"> <p>Ahles, C.L. 2001. <em>Fine Machine Sewing: Easy Ways to Get the Look of Hand Finishing and Embellishing</em>. Taunton Press. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=ft_qCrwc_BYC" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=ft_qCrwc_BYC</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="albrecht_nonwoven_2006" data-id="albrecht2006"> <p>Albrecht, W., H. Fuchs, and W. Kittelmann. 2006. <em>Nonwoven Fabrics: Raw Materials, Manufacture, Applications, Characteristics, Testing Processes</em>. Wiley. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=pvQwXBi3HwMC" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=pvQwXBi3HwMC</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="ashikmin_microfacetbased_2000" data-id="ashikmin2000"> <p>Ashikmin, Michael, Simon Premože, and Peter Shirley. 2000. “A Microfacet-Based BRDF Generator.” In <em>Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques</em>, 65–74.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="awaja_recycling_2005" data-id="awaja2005"> <p>Awaja, Firas, and Dumitru Pavel. 2005. “Recycling of PET.” <em>European Polymer Journal</em> 41 (7). Elsevier: 1453–77.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="ayranci_2d_2008" data-id="ayranci2008"> <p>Ayranci, Cagri, and Jason Carey. 2008. “2D Braided Composites: A Review for Stiffness Critical Applications.” <em>Composite Structures</em> 85 (1). Elsevier: 43–58.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="barlow_history_1878" data-id="barlow1878"> <p>Barlow, Alfred. 1878. <em>The History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and by Power.</em> Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="barnhart_barnhart_1988" data-id="barnhart1988"> <p>Barnhart, Robert K. 1988. <em>The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology</em>. New York: HW Wilson Company.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="bell_material_2015" data-id="bell2015"> <p>Bell, Sean, Paul Upchurch, Noah Snavely, and Kavita Bala. 2015. “Material Recognition in the Wild with the Materials in Context Database.” <em>Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)</em>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="brother" data-id="brother"> <p>Brother. 2021. “Brother Sewing and Embroidery Machines.” <a href="https://www.brother-usa.com/home/sewing-embroidery" class="uri">https://www.brother-usa.com/home/sewing-embroidery</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="buck_flat_1921" data-id="buck1921"> <p>Buck, H.D. 1921. <em>Flat Machine Knitting and Fabrics</em>. Bragdon, Lord &amp; Nagle Company. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=1xsjkgAACAAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=1xsjkgAACAAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="butterickpublishinginc._art_2016" data-id="butterick2016"> <p>Butterick Publishing Inc. 2016. <em>The Art of Knitting (Dover Knitting, Crochet, Tatting, Lace)</em>. Dover Publications.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="cali_mechanical_2018" data-id="cali2018"> <p>Calì, Michele, Salvatore Massimo Oliveri, Ubaldo Cella, Massimo Martorelli, Antonio Gloria, and Domenico Speranza. 2018. “Mechanical Characterization and Modeling of Downwind Sailcloth in Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis.” <em>Ocean Engineering</em> 165. Elsevier: 488–504.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="cartie_3d_2006" data-id="cartie2006"> <p>Cartie, Denis DR, Giuseppe Dell’Anno, Emilie Poulin, and Ivana K Partridge. 2006. “3D Reinforcement of Stiffener-to-Skin T-Joints by Z-Pinning and Tufting.” <em>Engineering Fracture Mechanics</em> 73 (16). Elsevier: 2532–40.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="castro-aguirre_poly_2016" data-id="castro-aguirre2016"> <p>Castro-Aguirre, E., F. Iñiguez-Franco, H. Samsudin, X. Fang, and R. Auras. 2016. “Poly(Lactic Acid)Mass Production, Processing, Industrial Applications, and End of Life.” <em>Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews</em> 107: 333–66. doi:<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2016.03.010">10.1016/j.addr.2016.03.010</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="chiodo_introduction_2005" data-id="chiodo2005"> <p>Chiodo, Maurice. 2005. “An Introduction to Braid Theory.” <em>Msc, University of Melbourne</em>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="chu_measurement_1982" data-id="chu1982"> <p>Chu, PL, and T Whitbread. 1982. “Measurement of Stresses in Optical Fiber and Preform.” <em>Applied Optics</em> 21 (23). Optical Society of America: 4241–5.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="chung_carbon_2012" data-id="chung2012"> <p>Chung, Deborah DL, and Deborah Chung. 2012. <em>Carbon Fiber Composites</em>. Elsevier.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="clair_golden_2019" data-id="clair2019"> <p>Clair, K.S. 2019. <em>The Golden Thread: How Fabric Changed History</em>. Liveright. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=VweLDwAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=VweLDwAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="dublin_women_1979" data-id="dublin1979"> <p>Dublin, Thomas. 1979. <em>Women at Work. the Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 18261860</em>. Columbia University Press.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="essinger_jacquard_2007" data-id="essinger2007"> <p>Essinger, J. 2007. <em>Jacquard’s Web: How a Hand-Loom Led to the Birth of the Information Age</em>. OUP E-Books. OUP Oxford. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=zXoRDAAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=zXoRDAAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="fouchier_felt_2009" data-id="fouchier2009"> <p>Fouchier, S. 2009. <em>Felt</em>. Textiles Handbooks. A&amp;C Black. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=bcUbC60NQbsC" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=bcUbC60NQbsC</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="gong_specialist_2011" data-id="gong2011"> <p>Gong, R.H. 2011. <em>Specialist Yarn and Fabric Structures: Developments and Applications</em>. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Elsevier Science. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=KQ5IAgAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=KQ5IAgAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="gordon_cotton_2006" data-id="gordon2006"> <p>Gordon, S., and Y.L. Hsieh. 2006. <em>Cotton: Science and Technology</em>. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Elsevier Science. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=VsBQAwAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=VsBQAwAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="gumennik_allinfiber_2012" data-id="gumennik2012"> <p>Gumennik, Alexander, Alexander M Stolyarov, Brent R Schell, Chong Hou, Guillaume Lestoquoy, Fabien Sorin, William McDaniel, Aimee Rose, John D Joannopoulos, and Yoel Fink. 2012. “All-in-Fiber Chemical Sensing.” <em>Advanced Materials</em> 24 (45). Wiley Online Library: 6005–9.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="guo_polymer_2017" data-id="guo2017"> <p>Guo, Yuanyuan, Shan Jiang, Benjamin JB Grena, Ian F Kimbrough, Emily G Thompson, Yoel Fink, Harald Sontheimer, Tatsuo Yoshinobu, and Xiaoting Jia. 2017. “Polymer Composite with Carbon Nanofibers Aligned During Thermal Drawing as a Microelectrode for Chronic Neural Interfaces.” <em>Acs Nano</em> 11 (7). ACS Publications: 6574–85.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="hagewood_technologies_2014" data-id="hagewood2014"> <p>Hagewood, J. 2014. “Technologies for the Manufacture of Synthetic Polymer Fibers.” In <em>Advances in Filament Yarn Spinning of Textiles and Polymers</em>, 48–71. Elsevier.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="henao_mechanical_2010" data-id="henao2010"> <p>Henao, Anamaría, Marco Carrera, Antonio Miravete, and Luis Castejón. 2010. “Mechanical Performance of Through-Thickness Tufted Sandwich Structures.” <em>Composite Structures</em> 92 (9). Elsevier: 2052–9.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="henderson_crocheting_2001" data-id="henderson2001"> <p>Henderson, David W, and Daina Taimina. 2001. “Crocheting the Hyperbolic Plane.” <em>The Mathematical Intelligencer</em> 23 (2). Springer: 17–28.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="hudson_printing_2014" data-id="hudson2014"> <p>Hudson, Scott E. 2014. “Printing Teddy Bears: A Technique for 3d Printing of Soft Interactive Objects.” In <em>Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems</em>, 459–68. CHI ’14. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. doi:<a href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2556288.2557338">10.1145/2556288.2557338</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="hunter_papermaking_1978" data-id="hunter1978"> <p>Hunter, D. 1978. <em>Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft</em>. Dover Books Explaining Science. Dover Publications. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=1sEp3rtK994C" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=1sEp3rtK994C</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="hunter_women_2004" data-id="hunter2004"> <p>Hunter, Janet. 2004. <em>Women and the Labour Market in Japan’s Industrialising Economy: The Textile Industry Before the Pacific War</em>. Routledge.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="james_complete_1998" data-id="james1998"> <p>James, C. 1998. <em>The Complete Serger Handbook</em>. A Sterling/Sewing Information Resources Book. Sterling Publishing Company, Incorporated. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=Mjg0SEEjxnkC" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=Mjg0SEEjxnkC</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="kadolph_textiles_2010" data-id="kadolph2010"> <p>Kadolph, S.J. 2010. <em>Textiles</em>. Fashion Series. Pearson. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=vsO9QQAACAAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=vsO9QQAACAAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="kanik_strainprogrammable_2019" data-id="kanik2019"> <p>Kanik, Mehmet, Sirma Orguc, Georgios Varnavides, Jinwoo Kim, Thomas Benavides, Dani Gonzalez, Timothy Akintilo, et al. 2019. “Strain-Programmable Fiber-Based Artificial Muscle.” <em>Science</em> 365 (6449). American Association for the Advancement of Science: 145–50.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="kilinc_handbook_2013" data-id="kilinc2013"> <p>Kilinc, F Selcen. 2013. <em>Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles</em>. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Elsevier Science. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=dGVEAgAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=dGVEAgAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="laufer_early_1930" data-id="laufer1930"> <p>Laufer, Berthold. 1930. “The Early History of Felt.” <em>American Anthropologist</em> 32 (1). JSTOR: 1–18.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="laver_costume_2020" data-id="laver2020"> <p>Laver, James. 2020. <em>Costume and Fashion: A Concise History (World of Art)</em>. Thames &amp; Hudson.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="li_artin_2021" data-id="li2021"> <p>Li, Jenny, and James McCann. 2021. “An Artin Braid Group Representation of Knitting Machine State with Applications to Validation and Optimization of Fabrication Plans.” In <em>2021 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)</em>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="liu_influence_2015" data-id="liu2015"> <p>Liu, LingShan, Tao Zhang, Peng Wang, Xavier Legrand, and Damien Soulat. 2015. “Influence of the Tufting Yarns on Formability of Tufted 3-Dimensional Composite Reinforcement.” <em>Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing</em> 78. Elsevier: 403–11.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="loke_digital_2021" data-id="loke2021"> <p>Loke, Gabriel, Tural Khudiyev, Brian Wang, Stephanie Fu, Syamantak Payra, Yorai Shaoul, Johnny Fung, et al. 2021. “Digital Electronics in Fibres Enable Fabric-Based Machine-Learning Inference.” <em>Nature Communications</em> 12 (1). Nature Publishing Group: 1–9.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="luo_learning_2021" data-id="luo2021"> <p>Luo, Yiyue, Yunzhu Li, Pratyusha Sharma, Wan Shou, Kui Wu, Michael Foshey, Beichen Li, Tomás Palacios, Antonio Torralba, and Wojciech Matusik. 2021. “Learning HumanEnvironment Interactions Using Conformal Tactile Textiles.” <em>Nature Electronics</em> 4 (3). Nature Publishing Group: 193–201.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="luo_knitui_2021" data-id="luo2021"> <p>Luo, Yiyue, Kui Wu, Tomás Palacios, and Wojciech Matusik. 2021. “KnitUI: Fabricating Interactive and Sensing Textiles with Machine Knitting.” In <em>Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems</em>, 1–12. CHI ’21. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="markande_knotty_2020" data-id="markande2020"> <p>Markande, Shashank G, and Elisabetta A Matsumoto. 2020. “Knotty Knits Are Tangles on Tori.” <em>arXiv Preprint arXiv:2002.01497</em>. <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.01497" class="uri">http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.01497</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="massey_basic_2019" data-id="massey2019"> <p>Massey, William S. 2019. <em>A Basic Course in Algebraic Topology</em>. Vol. 127. Springer.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="murasugi_study_2012" data-id="murasugi2012"> <p>Murasugi, K., and B. Kurpita. 2012. <em>A Study of Braids</em>. Mathematics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=VLTnCAAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=VLTnCAAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="ngan_experimental_2005" data-id="ngan2005"> <p>Ngan, Addy, Frédo Durand, and Wojciech Matusik. 2005. “Experimental Analysis of BRDF Models.” <em>Rendering Techniques</em> 2005 (16th). Citeseer: 2.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="payra_feeling_2021" data-id="payra2021"> <p>Payra, Syamantak, Irmandy Wicaksono, Juliana Cherston, Cedric Honnet, Valentina Sumini, and Joseph A Paradiso. 2021. “Feeling Through Spacesuits: Application of Space-Resilient E-Textiles to Enable Haptic Feedback on Pressurized Extravehicular Suits.” In <em>2021 IEEE Aerospace Conference (50100)</em>, 1–12.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="peng_soft_2016" data-id="peng2016"> <p>Peng, Huaishu, Scott Hudson, Jennifer Mankoff, and James McCann. 2016. “Soft Printing with Fabric.” <em>XRDS: Crossroads, the ACM Magazine for Students</em> 22 (3). ACM: 50–53.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="peng_layered_2015" data-id="peng2015"> <p>Peng, Huaishu, Jennifer Mankoff, Scott E. Hudson, and James McCann. 2015. “A Layered Fabric 3d Printer for Soft Interactive Objects.” In <em>Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems</em>, 1789–98. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702327" class="uri">https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702327</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="petrulyte_static_2009" data-id="petrulyte2009"> <p>Petrulyte, Salvinija, and Renata Baltakyte. 2009. “Static Water Absorption in Fabrics of Different Pile Height.” <em>Fibres &amp; Textiles in Eastern Europe</em> 17 (3): 60–65.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="picton_african_1989" data-id="picton1989"> <p>Picton, John, and John Mack. 1989. <em>African Textiles</em>. Trustees of the British Museum.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="poupyrev_project_2016" data-id="poupyrev2016"> <p>Poupyrev, Ivan, Nan-Wei Gong, Shiho Fukuhara, Mustafa Emre Karagozler, Carsten Schwesig, and Karen E. Robinson. 2016. “Project Jacquard: Interactive Digital Textiles at Scale.” In <em>Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems</em>, 4216–27. CHI ’16. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="rein_diode_2018" data-id="rein2018"> <p>Rein, Michael, Valentine Dominique Favrod, Chong Hou, Tural Khudiyev, Alexander Stolyarov, Jason Cox, Chia-Chun Chung, et al. 2018. “Diode Fibres for Fabric-Based Optical Communications.” <em>Nature</em> 560 (7717). Nature Publishing Group: 214.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="spencer_knitting_2001" data-id="spencer2001"> <p>Spencer, D.J. 2001. <em>Knitting Technology: A Comprehensive Handbook and Practical Guide</em>. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Technomic publishing. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=zsoRvDWPd2gC" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=zsoRvDWPd2gC</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="tao_infrared_2015" data-id="tao2015"> <p>Tao, Guangming, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Alexander M Stolyarov, Sylvain Danto, John V Badding, Yoel Fink, John Ballato, and Ayman F Abouraddy. 2015. “Infrared Fibers.” <em>Advances in Optics and Photonics</em> 7 (2). Optical Society of America: 379–458.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="thompson_narrow_2013" data-id="thompson2013"> <p>Thompson, A. 2013. <em>Narrow Fabric Weaving</em>. Read Books Limited. <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=gi9-CgAAQBAJ" class="uri">https://books.google.com/books?id=gi9-CgAAQBAJ</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="trace_reidemeister_1983" data-id="trace1983"> <p>Trace, Bruce. 1983. “On the Reidemeister Moves of a Classical Knot.” <em>Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society</em>. JSTOR, 722–24.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="vanlangenhove_smart_2007" data-id="vanlangenhove2007"> <p>Van Langenhove, Lieva. 2007. <em>Smart Textiles for Medicine and Healthcare: Materials, Systems and Applications</em>. Elsevier.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="veenendaal_history_2011" data-id="veenendaal2011"> <p>Veenendaal, Diederik, Mark West, and Philippe Block. 2011. “History and Overview of Fabric Formwork: Using Fabrics for Concrete Casting.” <em>Structural Concrete</em> 12 (3). Wiley Online Library: 164–77.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="vestartas_design_2018" data-id="vestartas2018"> <p>Vestartas, Petras, Mary Katherine Heinrich, Mateusz Zwierzycki, David Andres Leon, Ashkan Cheheltan, Riccardo La Magna, and Phil Ayres. 2018. “Design Tools and Workflows for Braided Structures.” In <em>Humanizing Digital Reality: Design Modelling Symposium Paris 2017</em>, edited by Klaas De Rycke, Christoph Gengnagel, Olivier Baverel, Jane Burry, Caitlin Mueller, Minh Man Nguyen, Philippe Rahm, and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, 671–81. Singapore: Springer Singapore. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6611-5_55" class="uri">https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6611-5_55</a>.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="wallenberger_fiberglass_2010" data-id="wallenberger2010"> <p>Wallenberger, Frederick T, and Paul A Bingham. 2010. “Fiberglass and Glass Technology.” <em>Energy-Friendly Compositions and Applications</em>. Springer.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="wang_recent_2016" data-id="wang2016"> <p>Wang, Sen, Ang Lu, and Lina Zhang. 2016. “Recent Advances in Regenerated Cellulose Materials.” <em>Progress in Polymer Science</em> 53. Elsevier: 169–206.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="watt_when_1997" data-id="watt1997"> <p>Watt, James CY, Anne E Wardwell, and Morris Rossabi. 1997. <em>When Silk Was Gold: Central Asian and Chinese Textiles</em>. Metropolitan Museum of art.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="wicaksono_tailored_2020" data-id="wicaksono2020"> <p>Wicaksono, Irmandy, Carson I Tucker, Tao Sun, Cesar A Guerrero, Clare Liu, Wesley M Woo, Eric J Pence, and Canan Dagdeviren. 2020. “A Tailored, Electronic Textile Conformable Suit for Large-Scale Spatiotemporal Physiological Sensing in Vivo.” <em>Nature Flexible Electronics</em> 4 (1). Nature Publishing Group: 1–13.</p> </div> <div class="ref" id="wollina_functional_2003" data-id="wollina2003"> <p>Wollina, U, M Heide, W Müller-Litz, D Obenauf, and J Ash. 2003. “Functional Textiles in Prevention of Chronic Wounds, Wound Healing and Tissue Engineering.” <em>Curr Probl Dermatol</em> 31: 82–97.</p> </div> ## <a id="credits">Credits</a> The [original recitation slides](./index.html) were crafted by [Alexander Zimmer](https://www.kniterate.com/about/), [Carmel Snow](http://www.carmelsnow.com/) and [Alexandre Kaspar](http://w-x.ch), who later created a <em>textiles background</em> write-up as part of his [PhD thesis](https://people.csail.mit.edu/akaspar/Kaspar-akaspar-PhD-EECS-2022-thesis.pdf) (gdoc [mirror](https://drive.google.com/file/d/16y695HSHqRDHlZZezP63iVEwnH9OCDJG/view?usp=sharing)) with inputs from Alex Zimmer. This webpage is a markdown transcription of that later write-up. ## Resources * [Fiber Processes](http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/865.18/fiber/index.html) from [MAS.865/18](http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/865.18/index.html) * Introduction to [Machine Knitting](https://akaspar.pages.cba.mit.edu/machine-knitting/) ## Miscellaneous [Accessibility](http://accessibility.mit.edu/) @ [MIT](http://web.mit.edu) [CSAIL](http://csail.mit.edu)